All-optical readout and control
       
     
All-optical readout and control
       
     
All-optical readout and control

Holographic targeting of laser beams to individual neurons in the cortex using a spatial light modulator. By co-expression of proteins for monitoring and manipulating neural activity, this allows spatiotemporal patterns of activity to be 'read out' and 'written' in the same neural circuit. This strategy may help neuroscientists to crack the neuronal code of the cortex. For more details, see our recent paper published in Nature Methods